Over 250 peer-reviewed publications have reported cellular and microvascular retinal assessments – both qualitative and quantitative – using the rtx1 Adaptive Optics Retinal Camera and its biomarker software.

Investigations encompass not only retinal and ocular conditions, but also cardiovascular risk factors and systemic diseases.

An overview of published findings, as well as highlights on some publications are available on this page.

Inherited retinal diseases

A wide array of inherited retinal diseases has been investigated with rtx1. In all of them, rtx1 revealed microscopic changes in various retinal structures. Regarding alterations of the cone cell mosaic, rtx1  enabled quantifying them, and in some cases even before clinical changes. Longitudinal studies have shown that rtx1 also assessed RP progression over shorter timescales than visual acuity or OCT biomarkers.

Age-related macular degeneration

Publications report that rtx1 showed AMD-related retinal changes in higher details than conventional imaging.

Different types of drusen had distinct appearances on rtx1 images. A new examination method using rtx1, called gaze-dependent AO imaging, further enhanced the contrast of small drusen, and enabled detecting more drusen than on color fundus images.

Furthermore, the border of geographic atrophy is more sharply visualized on rtx1 images than on autofluorescence images, which enabled detecting and measuring GA progression over timescales as short as 3 weeks.

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Cardiovascular risk factors

Diabetes – with and without retinopathy

In several clinical studies, the rtx1 revealed multiple microscopic abnormalities in the retinas of diabetic patients, even in eyes without diagnosed retinopathy. Read more in the summary.

Arterial hypertension

Clinical findings with rtx1 in hypertensive patients revealed modifications in the wall structure of retinal arterioles, which rtx1 enables quantifying with micron precision. Such alterations were correlated with microvascular changes in other parts of the body, and might have prognostic value regarding cardiovascular events.

Highlighted publications

New technique detects small drusen in AMD

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about rtx1 published studies

Over 200 peer-reviewed research studies have used the rtx1 Adaptive Optics Retinal Camera to investigate retinal anatomy and pathology at the cellular and microvascular levels.

References and links to all publications are also listed below.

Publications can be filtered either by pathology using the left menu, or by tag using the right menu. Results are sorted by publication date, the latest first.

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